CNC Routers Common Problems And Solutions

CNC router machine is relatively common processing equipment, not only in the wooden industry but also in the advertising industry, decoration industry, etc. You can often see this CNC machine. As a modern scientific and technological product, it is inevitable that it will failure occurs, but how to resolve the failure is a headache. Many customers still don’t know much about the structure and performance of CNC router machines. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the CNC routers’ common problems and solutions. FORSUN CNC mainly introduces the common failures and solutions of CNC router machines.

What is The Best CNC Router for My Business? 

Before introducing common problems, please let us understand the basic knowledge of CNC machine tools and their uses.

What Is A CNC Router Machine?

A CNC machine tool is an electromechanical device that uses computer programs to manipulate and control tools and equipment in the processing workshop. In other words, the controller programs the CNC machine tool to tell the tool in the workshop what to do.

How Does A CNC Router Machine Work?

CNC router machine is an industrial cutting machine used to cut various materials with high precision and high performance, including aluminum, wood, plastic, foam, and composite panels. The artwork designed by standard graphic design software is translated by the computer into a series of g-code instructions of the cutting machine, and the final cutting is executed by the machine.

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For common CNC machine tool problems, the root cause can usually be traced back to the following problems:

Poorly Maintained Or Improperly Maintained

CNC machines need to be carefully cleaned and lubricated regularly-otherwise problems may occur. Lack of cleaning may cause dust and debris to accumulate. This seems to be purely a hygiene issue, but it may actually affect the output of the machine.

For example, if you start to notice the material slipping during the cutting process, the accumulation of dust may prevent the machine from working properly and provide the most accurate instructions. If this problem continues to be solved, it will bring challenges when the machine is difficult to locate and keep the material stationary. This leads to higher accuracy and precision issues and ultimately leads to more errors.

Improper lubrication can cause machine parts to stick or move abnormally. This can cause errors as well as overheating and air blockage. Overheating and insufficient air can also cause problems, such as material movement in the process.

To learn more about CNC milling machine maintenance methods, please click: CNC Router Maintenance

Incorrect Settings Or Tools

Maybe one of your tools is dull, the cutting fluid or lubricant is not working properly, or the tool is moving at the wrong speed. All these problems can cause similar problems. The most likely result of one or more of these problems is the appearance of small burn marks on the edges and corners of the material.

The reason for this is simple. If the tool moves too slowly, the material will spend more time under the cutting edge than it should. This can cause burns and scars. Similarly, if the coolant does not work properly, the item may become too hot, causing burns to the edges of the material.

If one of your tools has already been burned, you need to adjust the settings according to the needs of the specific tool to avoid scars. Or, if the tool is too blunt and cannot cut properly, it may be time to replace it completely.

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Improper Or Incorrect Programming

Another problem that can cause serious problems in CNC machining is programming errors. This is a simple question of cause and effect because programming directly controls the creation of the product. Therefore, if the programming is incorrect, the product will have problems.

These problems can be difficult to spot, especially when new or inexperienced employees are involved. These employees may not have a completely accurate understanding of the process of the machine and may enter codes incorrectly. Although they recognize some mistakes, they may not realize their mistakes.

To solve this problem, inexperienced employees may try to turn off the power of the machine and then turn it on again. This may start the machine and cause it to correct the problem. At the same time, the original problem-the wrong encoding-remains undiscovered.

To avoid this situation, please ensure that every employee has received comprehensive and appropriate training on how to write CNC machine code correctly. In this way, these types of easily avoidable errors are less likely to occur, and you will be more likely to have a smooth and problem-free CNC machining process.

Insufficient Worker Skills And Training

With the increasing use of computing and programming, today’s CNC machine operators need a different set of knowledge and skills. Without proper organization, planning, and programming skills, even if workers who have used previous machine models in the past have processing skills and experience, they cannot optimize the output of these machines.

To ensure that this problem is solved, you need to hire the right machine operators who can visualize and design the machining process, choose the right tools and sequence for the job, and write programs.

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Automatic Tool Change Problem

Sometimes, you may face challenges in using automatic tool changers in CNC machine tools. This can be solved by learning each step of the tool replacement process and solving the problem by diagnosing the problem.

Check that the base, gripper arm, tool holder, support arm, and tool magazine are working properly and smoothly. Or check the movement of the swivel arm and robotic arm to make sure they are working properly. Also, keep the automatic tool changer and tool holder free of chips and coolant.

Machine Vibration/flutter

When your CNC machine vibrates during work, it may greatly shorten the life of the tool, affect the durability of the CNC machine, or damage the quality of the processed parts. You can only detect this by listening to the noise produced-sometimes it can be loud!

In order to solve this problem, you need to diagnose its workpiece chatter or tool chatter. You can also adjust the RPM of the machining process so that the frequency of the machining process does not resonate with the material frequency.

Note: For machining centers, when the spindle speed is higher than 8,000 rpm, a balanced tool post must be used. Otherwise, the vibration marks appear on the machined parts first. What followed was a shortened tool life, and finally the failure of the spindle bearing.

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Machine Overheating

For large batches and long-term processing, sometimes overheating may occur. The internal temperature of your CNC machine tool may reach 150 degrees or higher. This may have a negative impact on your machining work, the tools used, and the CNC machine itself.

To avoid this, please make sure to clean all passages regularly and clean the machine so that there are no dust, dirt, and materials on it. Regularly clean up all metal shavings and liquid used in cutting.

The overheating of the machine tool spindle is mainly caused by extensive use at the highest speed. The grease-lubricated spindle cannot be used for a long time at full speed. The air-lubricated spindle is better, while the oil-lubricated spindle (the same as that used by Huachuan) can run for a long time even at the maximum speed.

The change of the workshop environment temperature will also affect the overheating of the machine. Wind/draft passing through doors or open windows can affect the accuracy of precision machine tools.

Wide windows allow the sun to shine freely, and an air-conditioned air conditioner may please your operator, but since the machine will deform on the entire shaft, the machine will not like it at all.

Wrong CNC Machine Partner

Finally, and perhaps the most important point, you need to choose the right CNC machine partner to reduce the possibility of machine problems and human error.

In the long run, machine tool errors and errors can cause huge losses to your company. To ensure that these problems are reduced, please cooperate with an experienced CNC machine tool company that can provide comprehensive after-sales service, training, and maintenance services.

FORSUN CNC is meticulously designed and precisely manufactured to meet strict quality standards and has the best durability and service life in the industry.

CNC Routers Common Problems And Solutions

  • The knife often breaks when engraving hard materials


1 When engraving hard materials, you need to set different engraving parameters and use different tools according to different materials
2 choose the appropriate lubricant

  • The engraving machine cannot engrave at the origin


1. Whether the layout size of the file matches the machine.
2. Check whether there is an offset (OFFSET) and whether the layout setting is correct

  • The spindle motor suddenly stops or rotates slowly during the working process of the engraving machine


1. If the working voltage is unstable or overloaded, just add a voltage stabilizer.
2. Check whether the middle wire is well connected and whether the wire ends are unsoldered.

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  • When the CNC router sets the origin, sometimes it shifts forward or right, and the distance is not fixed.


1. The limit switch is out of order. The limit switch is closed and then bounced when the system returns to the system origin. Just change the limit switch.
2. If the driveline is loose, try to fix it tightly.

  • When the CNC router is started and reset, the positions of the X-axis, Y-axis, and Z-axis are not fixed


1. The limit switch is broken (the limit switch is always closed), just change it.
2. The driveline is broken (X-axis 14-pin and 15-pin short-circuit, Y-axis 13-pin and 15-pin short-circuit, Z-axis 31-pin and 15-pin short-circuit), just change the driveline or separate the short circuit.
3. The driver board is broken, just replace the driver board.

  • What should I do if the engraving line of the CNC router is wider?


1. Adjust the focal length of the focusing tube
2. Correctly adjust the current

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  • The computer signal of the engraving machine cannot be transmitted


1. The software parameter setting is incorrect
2. The machine is not connected to the computer
3. There is a problem with the computer serial port
4. The software transmission rate is inconsistent with the engraving machine baud rate setting


1. Reset the parameters
2. Press the “Offline” button to turn off the offline light
3. Use another serial port
4. Reset the baud rate

  • CNC router machine failure: When opening the software, the computer prompts that the card failed to open, please check the card “prompt”.


1. Check if the driver of the board is installed, or change the board to a PCI slot;
2. Reinstall the two data cables and check if there is any broken needle;
3. There is a problem with the board, replace the board.

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  • CNC router failure: prompt when opening the software: three-axis alarm, initialization error No. 4.


1. Check whether the two data lines of the computer and the machine are connected properly;
2. Check whether the fuse of the adapter board in the control box is burned out and replace the fuse;
3. Check whether the 5V12V power supply is normally supplied.

  • Misalignment or wrong size occurred during engraving.


1. Check whether the path of the engraving software is correct or not;
2. Check the gap size of the screw rod and whether the fastening screw of the polished rod is loose;
3. Check whether the settings of the software parameters are correct.
4. Check whether the ground wire is connected well
5. Check whether the computer has a virus

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  • When the x-axis travels for a certain section, the 2-axis does not lift the knife, but presses to go up but go down.


1. Check whether the Z-axis motor is operating normally, the power and drive current;
2. Check whether the Z-axis motor line has poor contact or intermittent disconnection

  • The spindle motor does not rotate or reverses.


1. Check the parameter settings of the inverter;
2. Whether the signal wires of the inverter are connected reversely, swap any two of the three wires connecting the inverter to the motor.
3. Check whether the wire connecting the inverter and the control box is in good contact
4. When the inverter wiring is intact, the motor will fail if the motor does not rotate

  • The CNC router is faulty. When the software is turned on, the axis is closed.


1. Drive problem or poor connection of computer output signal line;
2. The motor wire is in poor contact.
3. Check whether the parameters set in the software are correct

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  • CNC router in the process of limiting the phenomenon.


1. Check whether the engraving path of the CNC router exceeds the engraving range;
2. The software limit set by the parameter in the CNC router software.

  • The CNC router cannot be opened normally when the sending software is sent, and the engraving is deformed.


1. Reinstall the new system and software;
2. Check whether the x, Y-axis screw rods, and screws are loose;
3. The carving knife has problems

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Hopefully, by following the above-mentioned CNC router machine solutions, you will be able to better understand your CNC machine, thereby helping you prevent problems more easily, and you will know how to identify problems when they occur.

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